Melody

This example uses a piezo speaker to play melodies. It sends a square wave of the appropriate frequency to the piezo, generating the corresponding tone.

The calculation of the tones is made following the mathematical operation:

```      timeHigh = period / 2 = 1 / (2 * toneFrequency)
```

where the different tones are described as in the table:

```note    frequency    period    timeHigh
c       261 Hz       3830       1915
d       294 Hz       3400       1700
e       329 Hz       3038       1519
f       349 Hz       2864       1432
g       392 Hz       2550       1275
a       440 Hz       2272       1136
b       493 Hz       2028       1014
C       523 Hz       1912        956

```

Circuit

Piezos have polarity. Commercial devices are usually have a red (positive) and a black (negative). Connect the red wire digital pin 9 and the black wire to ground. Sometimes it is possible to acquire Piezo elements without a plastic housing, then they will just look like a metallic disc.

A piezo connected to pin 9.

Code

```int speakerPin = 9;

int length = 15; // the number of notes
char notes[] = "ccggaagffeeddc "; // a space represents a rest
int beats[] = { 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 4 };
int tempo = 300;

void playTone(int tone, int duration) {
for (long i = 0; i < duration * 1000L; i += tone * 2) {
digitalWrite(speakerPin, HIGH);
delayMicroseconds(tone);
digitalWrite(speakerPin, LOW);
delayMicroseconds(tone);
}
}

void playNote(char note, int duration) {
char names[] = { 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g', 'a', 'b', 'C' };
int tones[] = { 1915, 1700, 1519, 1432, 1275, 1136, 1014, 956 };

// play the tone corresponding to the note name
for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
if (names[i] == note) {
playTone(tones[i], duration);
}
}
}

void setup() {
pinMode(speakerPin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop() {
for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
if (notes[i] == ' ') {
delay(beats[i] * tempo); // rest
} else {
playNote(notes[i], beats[i] * tempo);
}

// pause between notes
delay(tempo / 2);
}
}

```